In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content: At a public meeting held to launch the event, the WPA affirmed its broad political objectives on becoming a full-fledged political party. It stated that the decision was based on the continued deterioration in the political and economic life of the country and restated its intention to redress the racial-political equation through a third-party, multiracial force.
These stories revolve around and cut across our four research programs: The dryland tropics are characterized by erratic Ratoon and ascria angencies of change essay, degraded soils and biodiversity, water scarcity, droughts, floods, and very poor physical and social infrastructure.
People of the drylands are perennially plagued by poverty, hunger, food and nutritional insecurity, and powerlessness. The confluence of global warming, droughts, floods, increasing land degradation, rising food prices, soaring energy demand and population explosion is leading to a perfect storm that is inflicting untold suffering on millions of farming communities all over the world.
Being the only global research center with a mandate focused on serving the dryland tropics, ICRISAT and our partners seek to help end this chronic plague. Likewise it illustrates the ways in which science can be mobilized to help achieve six critical development outcomes needed to bring about inclusive marketoriented development: Our strategic public, private and civil society partners worldwide are essential to this impact.
Moving forward on the threshold of our fifth decade, we have fine-tuned our strategic direction to respond to the rapidly changing environment, and in particular to the emergence of a new CGIAR. This development paradigm aims to unlock the untapped potential of the dryland poor, empowering them with more productive and resilient innovations, supportive policies, and diverse, purposeful, and action-oriented partnerships.
Enhancing our impacts and affirming our relevance, ICRISAT is actively advancing research on emerging global issues including climate change and vulnerability, drought and land degradation, biofuels, agricultural diversification, and linking farmers with markets. We would like to thank our donors and partners for their unwavering support in helping us pursue this pathway to lasting prosperity in the dryland tropics of the world.
Community-based integrated watershed management A community-based approach to integrated rural development uses watershed management as an entry point Improved access to water means more than just survival in the dryland tropics. In these poverty hot spots, agriculture is a major challenge for smallholder farmers, with a scarce water supply compounded by degraded natural resources and low crop yields.
Drawing on 35 years of research, ICRISAT and its partners have developed a model of community-based watershed management consortia that bring together institutions from public sector research, civil society and farming communities to share their knowledge in an equitable and efficient manner, and implement multidisciplinary activities at a landscape level.
The consortium works with ICRISAT and watershed communities to manage soil and water resources and establish livelihood enterprises at the village level. This model was started in India and scaled out in China, Thailand and Vietnam.
Recognizing and building on social capital in rural communities has been a key intervention in addressing rural poverty. Adarsha watershed at Kothapally in Andhra Pradesh, India is a classic example. Today, Kothapally is a prosperous village on the path to long-term sustainability and has become a beacon for science-based rural development.
Two major factors have contributed to this development: Better crop—livestock integration offers a tool for poverty reduction. Inhabitants of the Lucheba watershed in Guizhou Province of China have transformed their economy by improving their roads and water supply.
With technical support from the consortium, the farming system was intensified and diversified away from rice and rapeseed, toward livestock and horticultural crops.
Forage production using wild buckwheat as an alley crop has controlled erosion, provided feed for pigs and increased farm income from sloping lands. Efficient management of rainwater through in-situ conservation has improved water availability in the watersheds.
Meanwhile, the establishment of water harvesting structures has also improved groundwater levels. In Bundi, Rajasthan, for example, water levels in the wells were enhanced by an increased groundwater recharge of 5.
Community-based integrated watershed management has resulted in a two-pronged achievement: The effectiveness of improved watershed management technologies was evident in all the sites in India, China, Thailand and Vietnam.
This is particularly significant on sloping topography; for instance, in Tad Fa, Thailand, interventions such as contour cultivation, vegetative bunds and fruit trees grown on steep slopes reduced seasonal runoff to less than half mm and soil loss to less than one seventh 4.
In addition to experiencing low productivity, a large majority of the drylands are severely deficient in micronutrients zinc, boron and sulphur. Increased carbon sequestration, amounting to 7. In partnership with ICAR, carbon sequestering systems and management practices were subsequently identified.
Using participatory research techniques, biodiversity conservation practices were also promoted in the watersheds. The rehabilitation of degraded common lands in the Bundi watershed in Rajasthan through community participation not only made the village self-sufficient in fodder, but also generated additional income for the community through the sale of excess fodder.ICRISAT and several national agricultural research systems institutes are developing a road map, in consultation with the Indian Department of Agriculture and Cooperation, ICAR, the Indian Ministry of Agriculture, and the United States Agency for International Development, to use genome sequence information for pigeonpea improvement.
Recent papers, however, generally agree that among the photoperiod-sensitive cultivars, the lower the latitude ofdistribution, the higher the sensitivity (, , , , ).
The cultivars in the tropics or lower latitudes are usually late maturing (long growth duration). Organisation Change Management and Resistance to Change. Print Reference this. Published: 23rd March, Disclaimer: This essay has been submitted by a student.
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