In a broad sense, calligraphy is merely hand-writing, a tool for recording and communicating; but in the Arab world it is an art, an art with a remarkable history; a form with great masters and revered traditions. Beauty alone distinguishes calligraphy from ordinary handwriting; writing may express ideas, but to the Arab it must also express the broader dimension of aesthetics. Historians disagree on both the birthplace and birthdate of Arabic writing, but the most widely accepted theory is that it developed from Nabataean, a west Aramaic dialect which served as the international language of the Middle East from about the fourth century, B.
External relationships[ edit ] No genealogical relationship between Ainu and any other language family has been demonstrated, despite numerous attempts.
Thus, it is a language isolate. Ainu is sometimes grouped with the Paleosiberian languagesbut this is only a geographic blanket term for several unrelated language families that were present in Siberia before the advances of Turkic and Tungusic languages there.
Another suggestion is that Nihali and Kusunda are remnants of a northern division, that once extended to Japan. The most frequent proposals for relatives of Ainu are given below.
Alexander Vovin  notes that Ainu has had early contact with the unrelated Nivkh language, and that this contact had most likely happened on Hokkaido island. Today, Nivkh is spoken only on Sakhalin island and at the mouth of the Amur River.
Ainu of Sakhalin has more recent influence from Nivkh that Ainu of Hokkaido does not have. Altaic[ edit ] John C. Street proposed linking Ainu, Koreanand Japanese in one family and TurkicMongolicand Tungusic in another, with the two families linked in a common "North Asiatic" family.
Street's grouping was an extension of the Altaic hypothesis, which at the time linked Turkic, Mongolic, and Tungusic, sometimes adding Korean; today Altaic sometimes includes Korean and rarely Japanese but not Ainu Georg et al. From a perspective more centered on Ainu, James Patrie adopted the same grouping, namely Ainu—Korean—Japanese and Turkic—Mongolic—Tungusic, with these two families linked in a common family, as in Street's "North Asiatic".
Joseph Greenberg — likewise classified Ainu with Korean and Japanese. He regarded "Korean—Japanese-Ainu" as forming a branch of his proposed Eurasiatic language family. Greenberg did not hold Korean—Japanese—Ainu to have an especially close relationship with Turkic—Mongolic—Tungusic within this family.
The theory is now seen as discredited. Vovin presented his reconstruction of Proto-Ainu with evidence, in the form of proposed sound changes and cognates, of a relationship with Austroasiatic.
In Vovinhe still regarded this hypothesis as preliminary. It is not known to what extent this has affected the language.
Linguists believe the vocabulary shared between Ainu and Nivkh historically spoken in the northern half of Sakhalin and on the Asian mainland facing it is due to borrowing. The other group of people with whom the Ainu came into extensive contact was Japanese people since the 14th century.
Analytic grammatical constructions acquired or transformed in Ainu were probably due to contact with the Japanese and the Japonic languages that had heavy influence on the Ainu language with a large number of loanwords borrowed into the Ainu language and to a smaller extent vice versa.
Due to the low status of Ainu in Japan, many ancient loanwords may be ignored or undetected, but there is evidence of an older substrate, where older Japanese words which have no clear etymology appear related to Ainu words which do.
The Aborigines of Sakhalin. Miller, Roy Andrew Sakhalin Rayciska Ainu Dialect—Grammar. The Morphology and Syntax of the Shizunai Dialect.
The Languages of Japan. A Reconstruction of Proto-Ainu.1. Introduction.
The nature of creativity and its causes is a topic that has long been of interest. Creative thought drives both artistic products and scientific innovations, yet the mechanisms underlying great accomplishments have been notoriously difficult to study due to the rarity of these events.
Multilingual sign in Japanese, Ainu, English, Korean and mtb15.com is the language second down from the top on the right side of the sign. Oct 28, · Doing a degree in computer science and have to write my first essay in 3 years. So can't be bothered, but how long is words crackedy_returns, Oct 28, This webpage is for Dr.
Wheeler's literature students, and it offers introductory survey information concerning the literature of classical China, classical Rome, classical Greece, the Bible as Literature, medieval literature, Renaissance literature, and genre studies.
That is, an assignment, essay or paper will likely be assigned as – words rather than 3 – 4 pages. This way it is much more difficult for the writer to “game the system” by using large fonts and excessive spacing to meet the writing criteria.
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